Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is a water-soluble derivative of cellulose and a major type of cellulose ether prepared by the chemical attack of alkylating reagents on the activated non-crystalline regions of cellulose. It is the first FDA approved cellulose derivative which can be targeted for desired chemical modifications. In this review, the properties along with current advances in the physical and chemical modifications of CMC are discussed. Further, CMC and modified CMC could be engineered to fabricate scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. In recent times, CMC and its derivatives have been developed as smart bioinks for 3D bioprinting applications. From these perspectives, the applications of CMC in tissue engineering and current knowledge on peculiar features of CMC in 3D and 4D bioprinting applications are elaborated in detail. Lastly, future perspectives of CMC for wider applications in tissue engineering and 3D/4D bioprinting are highlighted.
Demand for biodegradable and biocompatible polymers have emphasized the need for cellulose and its derivatives as a promising biomaterial candidate in biomedical applications. Among all other cellulose derivatives, researchers have focused on CMC due to its fascinating properties such as water solubility, facile gelation behavior, water absorbing ability, pH stability, structural stability, muco-adhesiveness, biocompatibility, biodegradability and most importantly FDA approved for certain clinical applications. Physical and chemical modifications in CMC have enriched all of its properties desirable for the fabrication of scaffolds for various tissues such as bone, skin, soft tissues, etc. This review provides an overview of CMC and its physical & chemical modifications for various fabrication purposes. Further, the applications of CMC, CMC-blended with other polymers for tissue engineering have been comprehensively reviewed. In recent times, CMC has launched its evolution in 3D printing technology as it fulfils the basic bioink requirements such as shear thinning property, visco-elastic behavior, sol-gel transition, viscosity enhancer and cytocompatibility. Towards this perspective, the applications of CMC and its derivatives in 3D bioprinting and its current developments have been elaborated. In conclusion, CMC based biomaterials could be used as a novel biomaterial ink for the fabrication of tissue scaffolds, 3D bioprinted tissues and organs, which is a rapidly expanding research area in regenerative medicine. 1
Allen Zennifer, Praseetha Senthilvelan, Swaminathan Sethuraman, Dhakshinamoorthy Sundaramurthi,
Key Advances of Carboxymethyl Cellulose in Tissue Engineering & 3D Bioprinting Applications,