3D Bioprinting Technology In Tissue Engineering

Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology is an innovation that transforms living tissue and cells into three-dimensional objects using a variety of biomaterials. In recent decades, droplet-based, extrusion-based, and laser-assisted bioprinters1 have emerged. At the same time, natural and synthetic biomaterials and bio-inks have been developed for tissue regeneration. In order to create artificial tissues and organs closer to the past, new ones continue to be added to these developments.

We can classify 3D printers as follows: inkjet, extrusion, laser, Stereolithography, acoustics, needle array bioprinters. When deciding which bioprinter to use, base the properties of the type of tissue you will work with.

Bio-inks: Biomaterials for 3D Bioprinting

In addition to technological advances in 3D bioprinting, bio-inks (printable hydrogels) are important materials for functional tissues. These materials should not produce toxic by-products, they should be biocompatible, that is, compatible with the human body, printable and degradable. Figure 2 contains the properties of bio-inks.

Alginate is adapted from fibrin, chitosan, hyaluronic acid, polyethylene glycol (PEG), polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and the chemical structure of pluronics. Copyright 2017 Elsevier; adapted courtesy of silk and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Copyright 2017 Elsevier ; polycaprolactone (PCL) and polylactic acid (PLA; agarose and gelatin; collagen1.
(A) nature and (b) chemical structure of synthetic polymers.

1.Yu, J.; Park, S.A.; Kim, W.D.; Ha, T.; Xin, Y.-Z.; Lee, J.; Lee, D. Current Advances in 3D Bioprinting Technology and Its Applications for Tissue Engineering. Polymers2020, 12, 2958.